The goal of learning analytics is to provide students, instructors, and institutional leaders with relevant information that can help them to understand and optimize the teaching and learning experience. Although several institutions have matured quickly in their use of educational data, the field of learning analytics is still very young, and so many colleges and universities are still very early in the adoption process. The following definitions are designed to provide a helpful point of entry to this area.
Adaptive learning usually involves software that observes student performance and adjusts what it presents to each student based on those observations.1
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A branch of computer science that aims to build machines capable of simulating the human decision-making process.2 In practice, artificial intelligence can vary widely in sophistication, at times employing hard-coded ‘triggers,’ and at other times relying on complex machine learning algorithms. Educational institutions explore the use of artificial intelligence through faculty and student data collection to understand, model, predict and automate processes to improve teaching, learning, and student success.3
Extremely large or complex data sets that may be analyzed computationally to reveal patterns, trends and associations which cannot be processed by traditional data processing application software. Higher education, in particular, can generate rich data sets through Big Data. The challenge is to distill the data into useful information for the benefit of students, instructors and institutions.
Code of Practice
In learning analytics, it is the written guidelines that set out the responsibilities of educational institutions to ensure that learning analytics is carried out ethically, responsibly, appropriately and effectively.4
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It comes from a combination of cognitive science — the study of the human brain and how it functions — and computer science. The goal of cognitive computing is to simulate human thought processes in a computerized model. The computer can mimic the way the human brain works by using self-learning algorithms that use data mining, pattern recognition and natural language processing.5
A collection of widgets that provide the user with an overview of the reports and metrics needed to achieve one or more objectives. In learning analytics, they’re primarily intended for faculty, administrators, and other professionals, but students can also benefit from specific dashboards.6
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The ability for information in digital formats to be accessible to everyone in a given organization, not just specialists or managers, so that they may gather and analyze data by themselves. Data warehouse solutions can support data democratization for educational institutions, enabling administrators, instructional designers, instructors, and students to align what happens in the classroom with the institution’s retention or graduation goals.
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The management of policies, systems, security and practices, in order to ensure that an institution’s data is accurate, complete, consistent, reliable and available to the right people at the right time.
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A science that combines different statistical, computational and visualization methods in order to derive meaningful information from large data sets. Data Science is often applied to create predictions that other processes rely on, or to understand complex phenomena. In addition to education, it is applied in such varied fields as finance, sports, biological sciences, public health, astronomy, and internet activity.
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The electronic storage of corporate or institutional data. With a data warehouse, data are validated and systematically checked so that inconsistencies are eliminated and standard data definitions are preserved. A centralized, trustworthy, authoritative, and accessible source of institutional information improves communication and supports decision-making.7
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Within the field of learning analytics, it typically includes processing discussions occurring in a virtual learning environment, such as discussion forums, chat rooms, blogs, and even wikis. It aims to capture meaningful data on student interactions to explore the properties of the language used.
Educational Data Mining (EDM)
It is a discipline concerned with developing methods for exploring the data that come from educational settings and using those methods to better understand students, and the settings in which they learn.8 It is closely related to Learning Analytics, which places more emphasis on simultaneously investigating automatically collected data along with human observation of the teaching and learning context9. The main goal of both EDM and learning analytics is to extract information from educational data to support education-related decision-making. From a general perspective, EDM focuses more on techniques and methodologies, while learning analytics deals more with applications.10
Internet of Things
A concept comprising the everyday objects that are connected to the internet and are able to collect and exchange data, relating to other devices and databases. Internet-connected objects contain sensors that can be used to collect data that can increase the visibility of researchers into the teaching and learning process. Some examples of internet of things applications in education are mobile learning, smart lightning and security systems on campuses and smart boards.
Learning analytics uses data about students and their learning to help understand and improve educational processes, and to assist the learners themselves.11 It covers a range of methods that includes machine learning, dashboard design, social network analysis, writing analytics, and natural language processing.
The science of getting computers to learn and act like humans do, and improve their learning over time in autonomous fashion, by feeding them data and information in the form of observations and real-world interaction.12 Predictive analytics is an example of machine learning application in education.
It involves structuring an environment in such a way as to encourage a small set of behaviors without also actively limiting an individual’s ability to freely choose from a much wider range of options. In learning analytics, for example, it may mean providing students with information about how they are performing and alerting them in advance if they are at risk of not passing a course. It may also mean using activity data to understand and scale instructional design patterns that are likely to improve student course engagement.
Predictive analytics can help instructors understand the probability of future events occurring by analyzing historical and current data and answering questions such as: “Why is this happening?”, “What if these trends continue?”, “What will happen next?” and “What is the best that can happen?”13 In education, predictive models can use years of student demographic and performance data to generate forecasts about which students are likely to struggle. It helps in shaping positive outcomes related to student success while there is still time to act.14
A sense of personal responsibility for one’s learning. When put in the hands of students, learning analytics can provide them with the information needed to raise awareness about their own learning. For example, benchmarking student activity against others in the same class can promote reflection about the relationship between performance and relative effort, and encourage students to adopt behaviors that are more likely to produce a desired result.
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Social Network Analysis (SNA)
A procedure that allows the study of interactions and the strength of relations between individuals in a social network. In the field of learning analytics, social network analysis can help instructors and instructional designers to assess student engagement in discussion boards, and the impact that specific assignments may have on a network’s shape. Using SNA to identify weak ties can also help identify students at risk of stopping out. When combined with writing analytics and natural language processing, SNA can help instructors understand individual learners’ discussion forum activity as well as critical thinking and originality of contributions.
The measurement and analysis of texts written by students to understand writing processes and products in their own contexts. It aims to employ learning analytics to develop a deeper understanding of writing skills.15
1 Feldstein, M. What Faculty Should Know About Adaptive Learning. Retrieved November 14, 2017, from http://mfeldstein.com/faculty-know-adaptive-learning/
2 Bell, L. (2016, December 1). Machine learning versus AI: what’s the difference? Retrieved November 14, 2017, from http://www.wired.co.uk/article/machine-learning-ai-explained
3 Davis, V. (2017, November 1). The Ethical and Legal Dimensions of AI. Retrieved November 14, 2017, from http://blog.blackboard.com/the-ethical-and-legal-dimensions-of-ai/
4 Sclater, N., & Bailey, P. (n.d.). Code of practice for learning analytics. Retrieved November 14, 2017, from https://www.jisc.ac.uk/guides/code-of-practice-for-learning-analytics
5 Marr, B. (2016, March 23). What Everyone Should Know About Cognitive Computing. Retrieved November 14, 2017, from https://www.forbes.com/sites/bernardmarr/2016/03/23/what-everyone-should-know-about-cognitive-computing/#3b98f3ab5088
6 Whitmer, John. (2017, February 2). Surprising lessons from research on student feedback about data dashboards. Retrieved November 14, 2017, from http://blog.blackboard.com/research-student-feedback-data-dashboards/
7 Blackboard. (n.d.). Blackboard Intelligence. Retrieved November 14, 2017, from http://www.blackboard.com/resources/pdf/datasheet-blackboardintelligence-rev20170209.pdf
8 Educational Data Mining. (n.d.). Educational Data Mining. Retrieved November 14, 2017, from http://educationaldatamining.org/
9 The Center for Innovative Research in CyberLearning. (n.d.). Educational Data Mining and Learning Analytics. Retrieved November 14, 2017, from http://circlcenter.org/educational-data-mining-learning-analytics/
10 Liñán, Laura and Pérez, Angel. Educational Data Mining and Learning Analytics: differences, similarities, and time evolution. Retrieved November 14, 2017, from http://rusc.uoc.edu/rusc/ca/index.php/rusc/article/view/v12n3-calvet-juan/2746.html
11 SCLATER, Niall. (2016, September 01). What is learning analytics and how can it help your institution? Retrieved November 13, 2017, from http://sclater.com/blog/what-is-learning-analytics-and-how-can-it-help-your-institution/
12 Faggella, Daniel. What is Machine Learning? Retrieved December 2, 2017, from https://www.techemergence.com/what-is-machine-learning/
13 B. D., & J. H. (n.d.). Using Learning Analytics to Predict (and Improve) Student Success: A Faculty Perspective. Retrieved November 14, 2017, from http://www.ncolr.org/jiol/issues/pdf/12.1.2.pdf
14 Rattiner, M. (2017, May 19). Walking the line of predictive analytics in higher education. Retrieved November 14, 2017, from http://blog.blackboard.com/walking-the-line-predictive-analytics-higher-education/
15 Writing analytics (n.d). LAK16: Critical Perspectives on Writing Analytics. Retrieved November 14, 2017, from http://wa.utscic.edu.au/events/lak16wa/